美国分为什么党

文化 2019-12-23 3个回答

美国为什么要分成两个党

美国立国之时,开国元勋华盛顿等人力主摈弃政党歧见,所以当时并无政党之争。可是建国不久就出现了两个资产阶级政党:一个是以汉密尔顿为首的联邦党,另一个是以杰斐逊为首的反联邦党。后来,这两个派别几经分化、改组,

直至南北战争前正式建立民主党和共和党;以后它们轮流执政,正式形成了两党制度

美国历史上一直由民主党、共和党控制着美国的政治舞台,从来没有遇到过强大的对手。但是需要强调的事是,美国可不止民主共和两党,还有很多小党,虽然也出现过一些重要的第三党,不过一直没有能力把持参众两院、问鼎总统而已。

民主党于1791年建党,当时由部分种植园主、农民和某些与南方奴隶主有联系的资本家组成。

共和党成立于1854年,当时主要由反对扩大奴隶制的北方工商业的资本家组成。

美国的共和、民主两党在意识形态上并没有区别。它们都是代表垄断资产阶级利益的政党,只是在具体政策的实施上有所不同。

一般来讲,共和党主张小政府、大社会;它反对扩大政府在经济和社会事物方面的预算开支,但却主张扩大国防预算开支。而民主党赞成政府采取更积极的行动来推动社会福利事业和控制企业活动。

以上意见仅供参考,谢谢。

美国为什么要分成两个党

美国分哪几个党.?

与其他一些国家相比,美国的政党内部组织非常松散。尤其是两个大党在全国层次上根本没有正式的组织来管控会员、活动、政策制定等事宜。

虽然在联邦层次上,美国两个大党(民主党、共和党)都有自己的全国委员会(The National Committee),但其功能是筹款、组织宣传活动,尤其是积极准备总统大选,全国委员会并没有权力去指导党派内个人的行动。

虽然每个党都有一个主席,但这个主席并不真正是此党派的「领导」,一般也很难说谁掌握著美国政党中的领导权。通常那些游说其他会员追随自己领导的人可以视作是党派的领导。

不过经常来讲,官居高位的人是实际上的党派领导人,比如美国总统、上下两院的领袖等。然而,虽说是「领导」,但也要别人自愿跟随才可以,无法强求。

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美国的主要政党:

民主党Democratic Party

共和党Republican Party

其他有能力提名总统候选名单的非主要政党(即俗称的第三政党Third Parties):

自由党Libertarian Party

美国改革党United States Reform Party

绿党Green Party

美国宪党United States Constitution Party

其他小型的地域性政党:(在各级选举中有提名若干候选人的,但却没有能力提名总统候选名单。)

Alaskan Independence Party (1984 – present)

Aloha Aina Party

America First Party (2002 – present)

American Heritage Party (2000 – present)

American Independent Party (1968 – present)

American Nazi Party

American Party (1969 – present)

American Patriot Party (2003 – present)

American Reform Party (1997 – present)

Centrist Party (United States) (2006 - present)

Charter Party of Cincinnati, Ohio (1924 – present)

Christian Freedom Party (2004 – present)

Communist League (US) (2004 – present)

Communist Party USA (1919 – present)

Connecticut for Lieberman Party (2006 – present)

Conservative Party of New York (1962 – present)

Covenant Party (Northern Mariana Islands)

Free People's Movement (2002 – present)

Freedom Road Socialist Organization (1969-present)

Independence Party of Minnesota (1992 – present)

Independence Party of New York (1991 – present)

Independent American Party (1998 – present)

Independent Citizens Movement (US Virgin Islands)

Jefferson Republican Party

Labor Party (1995 – present)

Liberal Party of Minnesota

Liberal Party of New York (1944 – present)

Liberty Union Party (Vermont) (1970 – present)

Marijuana Party (2002 – present)

Marijuana Reform Party (New York) (1997 – present)

Mountain Party (West Virginia) (2000 – present)

National Socialist Movement (1974 – present)

New Party (1992 – 1998)

New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico (1967 – present)

New Union Party (1974 – present)

New York State Right to Life Party (1970 – present)

Peace and Freedom Party (1967 – present)

Personal Choice Party (1997 – present)

Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico (1938 – present)

Populist Party of Maryland (Nader 2004 - affiliated, unrelated to earlier so-named parties)

Populist Party of America (2002 – present)

Prohibition Party (1867 – present)

Puerto Rican Independence Party (1946 – present)

Reform Party of the United States of America (1995 – present)

Republican Moderate Party of Alaska (1986 – present)

Socialist Action (1983 – present)

Socialist Alternative (1986 – present)

Socialist Equality Party (1953 – present)

Socialist Labor Party (1876 – present)

Socialist Party USA (1973 – present)

Socialist Workers Party (1938 – present)

Southern Party (1999 – present)

Southern Independence Party

United Party (Idaho) (2005 – present)

United Citizens Party (1969 – present)

Vermont Progressive Party (1999 – present)

Workers Party, USA

Workers World Party (1959 – present)

Working Families Party (1998 – present)

World Socialist Party of the United States (1916 – present)

参考资料:

"List of political parties in the United States" From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_political_parties_in_the_United_States

"Politics of the United States" From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_the_United_States

美国分哪几个党.?

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